Strong nouns


Primary paradigm

Stoon, stone.

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Stoon Stones
Gen. Stones Stone
Dat. Stone Stonem

Secondary paradigm

Dai, day, returns to the original root vowel in the plural.

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Dai Dages
Gen. Daies Dage
Dat. Daie Dagem


A few nouns, like Engle, Angles, and names of tribes, nations, etc., are declined without a plural in -es.

N. Acc. Engle
Gen. Engle
Dat. Englem


Suun, son.

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Suun Sune
Gen. Sune Sune
Dat. Sune Sunem


Primary paradigms

  1. Heavy (long vowel or consonant cluster): Word, word.
  2. Light: Hof, dwelling.
N. Acc. Word Hof
Gen. Wordes Hoves
Dat. Worde Hove
N. Acc. Word Hove
Gen. Worde Hove
Dat. Wordem Hovem

The declension of Jat, gate, is:

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Jat Gate
Gen. Jates Gate
Dat. Jate Gatem

Secondary paradigm (syncopated)

Häved, head.

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Häved Hävde
Gen. Hävdes Hävde
Dat. Hävde Hävdem


Neuters in -en, like Noyten, beast, and Mäden, girl, where the e is not intrusive (as it is in Bäken, Voken, Token, Wäpen) are not syncopated: gen. Noytenes, Mädenes; pl. Noytene, Mädene, etc.

The words Ai, egg, Çhalf, calf, and Lamm, lamb, are declined alike:

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Çhild Çhilder
Gen. Çhildes Çhilder
Dat. Çhilde Çhildem


Primary paradigm

Stow, place.

Singular Plural
N. Acc. Stow Stowe
Gen. Stowe Stowene
Dat. Stowe Stowem

The genitive plural in -ene was imported from the weak declension.


  1. Masculine: Bare, grove.
  2. Neuter: Sare, machine.
  3. Femine: Määd, meadow.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
N. Acc. Bare Sare Määd
Gen. Barwes Sarwes Mädwe
Dat. Barwe Sarwe Mädwe
N. Acc. Barwes Sare Mädwe
Gen. Barwe Sarwe Mädwene
Dat. Barwem Sarwem Mädwem

It will be seen that these words hardly differ from the ordinary declensions, except in that when there is no termination, the w is vocalized to e after a short vowel, and is sometimes dropped after a long vowel. When w is retained in the nominative, as in Leuw, mound, the ordinary declension is followed throughout.


Here belong only five names of relatives ending in -r: Vader, father, Muder, mother, Bruðer, brother, Swester, sister, Dochter, daughter.

N. Acc. Vader Muder Bruðer
Gen Vader Muder Bruðer
Dat Vader Mieder Brieðer
N. Acc. Vaderes Muder Jebruðer
Gen. Vadere Muder Jebruðer
Dat. Vaderem Mudrem Jebruðrem
N. Acc. Swester Dochter
Gen Swester Dochter
Dat Swester Dechter
N. Acc. Jeswester Dochter
Gen. Jeswester Dochter
Dat. Jeswestrem Dochtrem


Paradigms: Vriend, friend; Ogend, owner.

N. Acc. Vriend Ogend
Gen Vriendes Ogendes
Dat Vroynd Ogende
N. Acc. Vroynd Ogend
Gen. Vriende Ogender
Dat. Vriendem Ogendem

This class of nouns consists of present participles which have dropped the final participial -e and are used as nouns. Like Vriend is declined only Viend, enemy. Like Ogend are declined all polysyllables ending in -end. Guudduund, (good-doing) benefactor, has plural Guuddiend.

Other stems

  1. Masculine: Mann, man; Vuut, foot.
  2. Feminine: Buuk, book; Nuut, nut.
N. Acc. Mann Vuut
Gen Mannes Vutes
Dat Menn Viet
N. Acc. Menn Viet
Gen. Manne Vute
Dat. Mannem Vutem
N. Acc. Buuk Nuut
Gen Bieçh Nyte
Dat Bieçh Nyte
N. Acc. Bieçh Nyte
Gen. Buke Nute
Dat. Bukem Nutem

Like Vuut is declined Tuuð, tooth.

Like Buuk are declined:

Bruuk, trouserspl. BrieçhMaus, mousepl. Moys
Guus, gooseGiesTurf, turfTyrf
Laus, louseLoysand a few more.

Like Nuut is Stude, prop.

The declension of the feminines Burg, town, Kau, cow, and of the neuter Ale, ale, is best given in full:

N. Acc. Burg Kau Ale
Gen Byri Koy Aleð
Dat Byri Koy Aleð
N. Acc. Byri Koy Aleð
Gen. Burge Kaue Aleðe
Dat. Burgem Kauem Aleðem

Weak nouns


  1. Masculine: Gume, man; Jevää, joy.
  2. Feminine: Herte, heart.
  3. Neuter: Äge, eye.
Nom. Gume Jevää Herte Äge
Acc. Gumen Jevään Herte Äge
Gen. Gumen Jevään Herten Ägen
Dat. Gumen Jevään Herten Ägen
N. Acc. Gumen Jevään Herten Ägen
Gen. Gumene Jeväne Hertene Ägene
Dat. Gumem Jevääm Hertem Ägem